Aside from the upper Volga region, there were a number of more Russian German settlements built around the Black Sea. This second colonization policy was czar Alexander I of Russia in his ukase of November 29, 1813 to encourage Germans to settle the province of Bessarabia.
Inducement was similar to that offered the Volga Germans on July 22, 1763, with the exception that the Bessarabians would receive 60 dessiatines of land, and the option to sell or buy more land. This migration lasted from the fall of 1814 unti1 1817. Most settlers were from Wurttemburg, from Poland, Preussen and Bayern (Bavaria).
There were approximately 150 villages in this area. At the end of World War I, in 1918, Bessarabia was ceded to Romania until June, 1940 when Russia compelled Romania to return it. Stalin wished to send these Germans to Siberia. but Hitler made an agreement to assimilate some 90,000 of them if they would leave Russia, immediately. There they walked into war with Russia where many lost their lives.
The struggle in the surrounding areas continued another few years until the Treaty of Adrianople in 1829, when Russia could claim all of the Caucasus, with its strategic location between the Caspian Black Sea and with roads and passes between the Caucasus Range, as well as great mineral wealth.
With 1815’s Congress of Vienna, the Holy Alliance was founded. Russian expeditions sent to explore last of America. The years 1816-19, emancipation of peasants in the Baltic provinces. Devastation of the Napoleanic wars led to another migration from Germany to Russia. The reign of Nicholas I began in 1825, and would continue for the next thirty years. His reign began with the war against Persia, which was ended with Treaty of Turkmanchai in 1828. That year witnessed the expansion in the Caucasus region in 1826, with annexation of Armenia.
Russia saw another outbreak of war with Turkey in 1828. The Treaty of Adranople in 1829 secured Caucasus US for Russia.turbulent years of 1835-44, witnessed 216 peasant uprising recorded in Russia. The first railroad in Russia was constructed in 1837. The St. Petersburg-Moscow railroad opened 1851 and 1853 saw the occupation of Sakhalin and Korea.
Russia entered the Crimean War (1854-56), during which Alexander II began his reign of which extended from 1855-1881, and was characterized by reform. These were the years of the opening Kansas and Nebraska in the U.S. to which many German’s from Russia would soon be migrating.
The Peace of Paris in 1856, ended the Crimean War with diplomatic humiliation of Russia. In, 1861, the year that saw the beginning of the Civil War in America, Alexander II, as one of his liberal reforms, emancipation of the serfs. He followed this with financial reforms in 1862 educational reform in 1863, and with judicial reforms in 1864.
Pastor William Starkel travels throughout Wisconsin, Missouri, and Kansas, from 1864-68 missionary journey. He would return to Russia with glowing reports of opportunity in America.
By 1865, Russia began conquest of central Asia (1865-85). In 1866 there was an attempted assassination of Alexander II. Then. in 1867 Russia reduced tariffs, and sold Alaska and Aleutian Islands to the United States. Shortly thereafter, in 1869, Tolstoy’s released his WAR AND PEACE.
The year 1870 saw the abrogation (end) of the Black Sea clauses of the Treaty of Paris. This year also marked by municipal reform. Also, in the same year, The Franco-Prussian War began. Bismark sieged Strasbourg and Metz and demanded Alsace and Lorraine back, and upheld the Rhine as a German river. This war succeeded in unifying the German Empire under the Prussian Hohenzollerens.
The 1870s in Russia were marked by poor harvests, increased taxes, withdrawing of resettlement capital, and the serious curtailment of religious freedom. By 1865 there were 170 Vo1ga villages. According to Brent Alan Mai in his book Deines Dynasty source not cited: “The original 30 year tax exempt period was extended to 1809. Surplus land and freedom from war promoted earlier marriages and larger families, which eventually led to land shortages.
By 1767 land was reduced from the original 65 acres per landowner to a mere 35 acres. By 1875, this amount had dwindled to a mere three and one-ha1f acres a person. An article in the Kautz Family History, Vol. I:, edited by John W. Kautz is quoted, “The Russians said, women had no souls, so land was divided (among the masculine souls of the colony”. The article further stated that in 1816 land was divided dessiatines/soul and by 1941 the division was down to 3.2 dessiafines/soul. This depletion of land was a factor in emigration. In 1798 every male was given 41.9 acres. By 1869 it was four acres per male.